It has already been related how the Polish Communist Party had been wiped from the face of the earth by the will of Moscow in 1937 (see Vol. I, p. 105)5 a*1^ how all the Polish Communists who had stayed in Russia had been shot sooner or later; it has also been recounted how any Russian Communist who found himself on Polish territory during the war of 1939 received orders to sabotage the * impel ialist war.' Anyone fighting against the German forces in Poland had then, according to Aloscows been an agent of the* international capitalists and imperialists/ When, on September 17, the Communist Red Army stabbed the Polish Forces in the back, the same c agent* was now termed a * traitor of the people.5 The Soviet's 5 Kosciuszko ? radio station, in spite of this, had had the effrontery to discuss the topic of the Communists who had * defended Warsaw ? r.gainst the Germans, The Kremlin was to revert to the slogans of £ patriotism * in its propaganda when it realised that there wcis no suitable element in Poland from which to form the nucleus of a Communist organisation for their future action,, and when, after the lightning and unexpected retreat from that country in 1941., they had been in desperate need of a tool to serve their purpose. The Soviets invariably considered an action in the resr of the enemy to be a vital factor of the war in any country they were attacking. When, therefore, it became clear that Sikorski and the Polish Army in the U.S.S.R. would not be of any value in such an action, the Kremlin had to forge a more suitable weapon for itself. So, at the end of February, 1943, the Soviet Government, who permitted of no foreign organisation on its territory (who refused to sanction even a club for the foreign corres- pondents), and who did not allow any Soviet organisation, even the Russian Red Cross, to have contact with any similar institution abroad, discovered and boosted up the independentf Union of the Polish Patriots.' It was not long before the Soviet radio was claiming that this * Union * expressed * the genuine opinion of the Polish people.3 Since no organisa- tion could exist in Russia, independent of the Com.Tnun.ist Party, it must, in fact, have been some off-spring of that same Party. There were two remarkable and contradictory features regarding the formation of this body. Firstly, according to the Soviet's own statement, it was composed ofc Polish citizens,' yet under tie * law * proclaimed by the same Soviets on November 29, 1939, all £ former' Polish subjects residing in Russia had become Russian citizens. After the Treaty of July, 1941, they resurrected these Poles, only to re-bury them once more on December I, 1941, all of those at any rate of non-Polish blood. The Soviets in this case applied Hitler's racial law or rather admitted the rule of Tsarist bureaucracy, that only a Catholic could be a Pole and, even then, he must prove he had Polish ancestors. Under the Soviet Note of January 16, 1943, however, even those who could prove they were Poles had once again been forcibly re-made into Russian citizens. Yet the Kremlin, had been able to produce * Polish citizens * to form its * Union of Polish 451,'